Glossary

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A

Abrasion

Wearing down or scrapping by friction of a hard, rough material.

Accelerator

Raw Material added to latex to boost the vulcanization rate.  A formulation can include one or more accelerators.

Alkali

Aqueous solution of a caustic, highly basic chemical (e.g.: potassium or sodium hydroxide).

Allergy

An abnormal physiological response to a substance penetrating the body due to an over-reaction of the immune system.

Ambidextrous

Ambidextrous gloves can be worn equally well on either hand; this is principally the case for thinner gloves.

Anatomical

A glove is called anatomical when there is one shape for the left hand and another for the right.

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B

Butyl

Butyl offers excellent chemical resistance against ketones, acids, esters and amine derivatives. It is a supple and elastic synthetic material, allowing the user to retain dexterity if the material is not too thick. As it is quite expensive, butyl is classed as a special purpose polymer, reserved for applications requiring very high, targeted, chemical protection.

NB: butyl has poor mechanical properties when heavily stressed in chemical environments. In those conditions, a thick glove, with a cotton lining is recommended, since this reinforces the mechanical properties of the glove, and therefore its durability. In addition, butyl is not appropriate for prolonged contact with aromatic or chlorinated solvents, as these provoke rapid deterioration of the material.

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C

Chlorinated

Makes it easier to put on and take off gloves, without increasing the thickness and without using powder. Reduces the allergy risk of natural latex gloves.

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D

DMF

Dimethylformamide (or DMF) is a solvent used in a variety of applications in the chemical industry. DMF is also used in the manufacturing process for gloves made of polyurethane (PU) and derivatives. DMF is a chemical which, during use, can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as harmful by inhalation and skin contact. In case of long-term or repeated exposure, DMF may have effects on the liver. Occupational exposure limits have been defined in several countries and these limits indicate maximum concentration in the air with which MAPA gloves in polyurethane are compliant.

To eradicate the risk of exposure to DMF, MAPA offers a full range of nitrile gloves (Ultrane 553, Ultrane 562, Krynit 563, Krynit 582, etc.).

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F

Flocked

Cotton-based textile fibres, covering the inside of the gloves. Fleeced feel providing good absorption of perspiration.

Fluoroelastomer

Fluoroelastomer, a high performance polymer, is recommended for prolonged contact with aromatic solvents, sulphur-based chemicals and amines.

The Mapa Professional multi-layer technology creates an especially supple fluoroelastomer glove, with high chemical resistance.

Fluoroelastomer is an expensive material. It is classed as a specialpurpose polymer, reserved for applications requiring very high, targeted, chemical protection.

Beware: fluroelastomer is not recommended for prolonged contact with ketones, organic acids and acetates

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N

Natural latex

This polymer offers good mechanical performance, even with minimal thickness. In particular, it has good tear and puncture resistance, and it offers good resistance to numerous acids, alkalis, alcohols and ketones.

It also has the advantage of staying supple in cold environments.

N.B.: In certain rare cases, the proteins found in natural latex can cause allergic reactions. In this event, we recommend the use of synthetic materials for sensitised users, such as a nitrile or neoprene glove.Natural latex is not recommended for use in contact with oils, greases, petroleum products, strong oxidising acids and aromatic or chlorinated solvents. The properties of natural latex can be deteriorated by prolonged exposure to light, UV or ozone.Natural latex offers exceptional flexibility and elasticity. Gloves made from natural latex adapt to the shape of the hand, thus maximizing the user's dexterity and comfort.

 

Neoprene

Extremely supple with excellent resistance to chemical contact, neoprene is an outstanding multi-purpose polymer. Neoprene offers good chemical resistance to acids, alkalis, oils, greases, alcohols, petroleum products, ketones, aliphatic solvents and numerous industrial gases and vapours). In addition, it is a supple material enabling dexterity and comfort.

It has excellent thermal properties, with contact insulation (hot or cold), and fire resistance (suitable for applications in proximity to flames). It also ages well, since it does not suffer from any deterioration, due to prolonged exposure to light, ozone, UV, etc.

On the other hand, we should point out that

neoprene has poor mechanical properties when heavily stressed in chemical environments. In those conditions, a thick glove with a cotton lining is recommended, since this reinforces the mechanical properties of the glove, and therefore, its durability. Neoprene is not appropriate for prolonged contact with strong oxidising acids and aromatic or chlorinated solvents, since these rapidly damage neoprene.

Nitrile

Nitrile, or Acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), generally offers very good resistance to oils, greases and hydrocarbon derivatives, as well as aromatic or chlorinated solvents.

Nitrile also gives excellent abrasion and puncture resistance. It does not contain any proteins and has a very low accelerator content, therefore, it is very well-tolerated by users, paticularly for long-term wear.

On the other hand,

nitrile is a naturally rigid elastomer. Thick nitrile gloves may limit dexterity.nitrile to stiffen, which makes the glove more difficult to use. Note, that nitrile is not recommended for prolonged contact with ketones, strong oxidising acids, esters or aldehydes.

In addition, they are not recommended for cold environments (< -40°C), since these temperatures cause nitrile to stiffen, which makes the glove more difficult to use.  Note, that nitrile is not recommended for prolonged contact with ketones, strong oxidizing acids, esters or aldehydes.

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P

Powdered

Makes it easier to put gloves on and take them off, without having to increase the thickness of the glove.

PVC

PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, provides good resistance to numerous acids and alkalis, and is associated with good mechanical resistance where the gloves are lined with fabric. PVC does not contain allergens such as proteins or accelerators, and so is well-tolerated by users.

PVC gloves are not recommended for situations where they may come into contact with chemical solvents (ketones, alkanes, etc.). Contact with these products leads to the extraction of the plasticisers, and, as a result, the glove stiffens.

PVC gloves must not be used for handling hot parts (>80°C), to avoid their deterioration.

PVC is a material that ages well, as it is not affected by prolonged exposure to light, ozone, UVs, etc. PVC gloves can therefore be stored for a long time without any alteration in their properties.

 

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T

Textile support

Knitted interior, made from cotton or synthetic materials for increased comfort. Particularly suited to extended tasks.

The degradation index

The degree of deterioration of the glove, shown by an alteration of its physical properties (e.g. softening, hardening, etc.).

The permeation time

The time taken for the chemical to penetrate the glove at a molecular level. In some cases, there is no visible deterioration of the glove.

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