Anatomical or ambidextrous glove?

A glove is called anatomical when there is one shape for the left hand and another for the right.

Ambidextrous gloves can be worn equally well on either hand; this is principally the case for thinner gloves.

Gloves to protect against avian flu.

The avian influenza is caused by a virus (here the highly pathogenic H5N1) which is spreading among birds. The flu has been proven transmissible to humans primarily through inhalation but also through contact contamination. Until now, no human-to-human transmission has been evidenced, but this could change through a genetic mutation of the virus. Such contamination is possible in the environment of dead or infected birds, through airborne or contact contamination of bird secretions or feces. Typical applications where the risk exists is the removal of dead birds, slaughtering and elimination of suspected infected birds, post-mortem examination of birds, medical care to suspected infected persons (precaution).

Which gloves will protect?

The first requirement applicable to gloves to protect against the avian flu virus is to be liquidproof, i.e. in compliance with EN 374-1 for the penetration tests. Besides, the gloves must remain liquidproof during the full period of exposure. It must thus offer sufficient mechanical strength in order to prevent any damage on the glove such as cut, snag or tear that would break down the barrier. Of course, the gloves are disposable ones; they shall be discarded after use in a proper manner to prevent further contamination. 

Thus thin disposable gloves (such as Solo 992/995 or Solo Ultra 997) are acceptable only if there are no mechanical stresses or risks associated in the job, e.g. limited to laboratory works. 

Selection of the proper glove will depend upon the job to be performed, i.e. mechanical stresses and functionality required. For collecting and disposing of dead birds, as well as decontamination works of surfaces and soil, gloves such as Vital Eco 115/117, Duo-Mix 405, Optinit 472 or Ultranitril 492 are appropriate, but other gloves from the Mapa-Professionnel range may also be selected depending on the functionality requirements. We are now in the process of checking the efficiency of the Bio-Pro glove against this virus; provided this is confirmed, it may be useful to recommend our Bio-Pro 860 glove as an underglove in these instances where mechanical damages are highly probable.

What is the difference between a first, second and third-degree burn?

A first-degree burn affects the epidermis only.

A second-degree burn affects the dermis at some level (superficial or deep).

A third-degree burn affects both the epidermis and the dermis, destroying them completely. Regeneration is not possible.

Scalding may occur at 45°C and accelerates as the temperature increases.

What is HDPE?

HDPE is corresponding to High Density Polyethylene fibers.

Uses HDPE fibres ensuring excellent cut resistance with reduced thickness for good dexterity.

What is DMF?

Dimethylformamide (or DMF) is a solvent used in a variety of applications in the chemical industry.  DMF is also used in the manufacturing process for gloves made of polyurethane (PU) and derivatives. DMF is a chemical which, during use, can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as harmful by inhalation and skin contact.  In case of long-term or repeated exposure, DMF may have effects on the liver. Occupational exposure limits have been defined in several countries and these limits indicate maximum concentration in the air with which MAPA gloves in polyurethane are compliant.

In Standard EN 407, what is corresponding to the contact-heat resistance?

The contact-heat resistance is corresponding to the second figure under the pictogram EN 407.

Standard EN 407 – Contact-heat level measures whether it takes more than 15 seconds to raise the temperature inside the glove by 10°C, in an environment at ambient temperature and with the hot part in constant contact. 

The temperature of the part varies depending on the level defined in the Standard:

> Level 1 - 100°C

> Level 2 - 250°C

> Level 3 - 350°C

> Level 4 - 500°C

Some materials may melt at high temperatures and impair the glove’s mechanical properties. 

EN 407 does not address degeneration of the materials: a glove may meet the Standard even though its constituent materials deteriorate at the defined temperatures.

What is chlorination?

This involves washing in water containing dissolved chlorine, followed by neutralisation and rinsing to eliminate any residue. Chlorination can be carried out on the production line (in which case the inside of the glove is chlorinated) or at the post-manufacturing phase (the glove is chlorinated both inside and out). The chlorine modifies the chemical structure of the glove's surface. The process is permanent and irreversible. Chlorination is also sometimes termed halogenation and can refer to smooth finished gloves.

Why chlorination?

Rubber does not slip, particularly natural latex. Chlorination makes the glove surface slippery thus making it easier to put on. It is therefore an essential process for gloves without a cotton flocklined interior or where there is no powder to help ease them on. Single-use, "non-powdered" disposable gloves made of natural or synthetic (nitrile, etc.) rubber are chlorinated.

Are there any drawbacks?

The fact that chlorine is used in this process can create environmental problems for the manufacturer. In addition gloves treated in this way are generally more expensive than the "powdered" version. Finally, gloves which have had their external surface chlorinated could be slippery and the grip is thus less reliable.

Used gloves as well as their packaging must not have adverse impact on the environment.

The gloves and packing are biodegradables?

Only natural latex is significantly degraded by oxydation when subjected to sunlight (UV). However, the level of biodegradability is less than for organic waste. Gloves made of other materials including natural or synthetic fibres are only slighty biodegradable if at all.

Can the gloves be incinerated?

Used gloves and their packaging can generally be destroyed in household waste incinerators or similar equipment. However, PVC (or vinyl) gloves may pose a problem where large volume incineration is required. In fact, incineration of such gloves leads to high levels of hydrogen chloride being released, with potential damage to the incineration installations.

It's worth noting that gloves which have been contaminated during use by products which are biologically or chemically dangerous should be stored and destroyed in compliance with local regulations governing dangerous waste.

And packing?

Polyethylene and cardboard packaging comply with European Directive 94/62/CEE (order no. 98-638 of July 20th 1998), and can be incinerated or recycled.

How to read a chemical table of resistance?

Mapa Professional product brochures provide detailed information on the performance of protective gloves in contact with chemicals. What is the process involved?

How it to include?

There are two phenomenons which characterize a glove's resistance to contact with a given chemical:

Degradation: deterioration of the glove, manifested by modification of physical properties (eg. softening, hardening).
Permeation: a phenomenon which is characteristic of solvents which, depending on the type, may gradually penetrate the glove, sometimes with no visible signs of degradation.
The Mapa Professionnel tables also show the results of degradation and permeation tests conducted in a laboratory (see description of tests below). They show:

A degradation index of 1 to 4 with a high score representing low degradation of the glove in contact with the chemical.
Transit time: in minutes, obtained on the basis of the permeation test conducted as per standard EN 374 unless otherwise stipulated.
A permeation index of 1 to 6 as per standard EN 374 where the higher the score the longer the time taken for the chemical to permeate the glove. 
In order to help you choose the most appropriate gloves, Mapa offers a Chemical Resistance Index. The key to the index is as follows: CHEMICAL RESISTANCE INDEX
+ + Prolonged contact of the glove with the chemical is possible (within the limit of the transit time)

+    Intermittent contact of the glove with the chemical is possible (for a total period which is less than the breakthrough time)

=    The glove may be used against chemical splashes

-     Use of the glove is not recommended.

How is the degradation measured?


A patch is cut from the glove and attached to the top of a beaker containing the chemical under test.
The beaker is turned upside down; the glove comes into contact with the product.
After one hour of contact, the beaker is returned to its original position and a puncture test is immediately conducted using a needle as per standard EN 388.


This test enables measurement of the time (in minutes) taken by the chemical to break through the glove, in conditions equivalent to total immersion of the glove. 
The test is conducted at 30°C in order to simulate the hand's temperature. 
The test lasts a maximum of 8 hours. If no permeation occurs, > 480 minutes is indicated as the result. In accordance with standard EN 374, the breakthrough time is represented in a permeation index as per the following table :

Residual force

(in Newton ) <5 5 to 10 11 to 15 >15
Degradation index 1 2 3 4
 The glove with the highest index is most resistant to degradation.

How do we measure permeation?

Method (as per standard EN 374-3)

A glove sample is placed in a test cell forming a membrane separating two compartments.
The chemical is put into one of the compartments. The sample represented by the external surface of the glove is brought into contact with the chemical.
A liquid or gas circulates in the other compartment and is periodically tested to see whether any of the chemical has penetrated the glove.


This test enables measurement of the time (in minutes) taken by the chemical to break through the glove, in conditions equivalent to total immersion of the glove. 
The test is conducted at 30° C in order to simulate the hand's temperature. 
The test lasts a maximum of 8 hours. If no permeation occurs, > 480 minutes is indicated as the result. 
In accordance with standard EN 374, the breakthrough time is represented in a permeation index as per the following table:

Breakthrough time

Greater than (in mins) 10 30 60 120 240 480
Permeation index 1 2 3 4 5 6

The glove with the highest index is most resistant to degradation. 
A score of 0 indicates that the breakthrough time is less than or equal to 10 minutes.

Pratical interpretation of chemical resistance data

Your Mapa catalogue offers a guide describing performance of the 5 main materials of which gloves are made in relation to numerous chemicals. This enables you to identify the material which, in theory, is best adapted to your application. 

The chemical resistance charts show numerous test results obtained primarily with pure solvents, but also with acids, bases, disinfectants, etc., and where the degree of dilution in water is indicated. Mapa is continually striving to add to this information by regularly updating the charts with new test results on the chemicals used by you, the customer. 

These charts cannot be used to calculate detailed data on more complex products such as solvent mixtures. Please contact Mapa's Customer Technical Service for information on which glove is best suited to such products. 
The data are based on laboratory test results and should not be seen as evidence of performance in actual working conditions. You are therefore advised to run a preliminary test to ensure that the gloves are appropriate to the application?

If you would like to know which glove is best suited to a chemical application not yet included in the Mapa charts you should contact the Customer Technical Service in your particular country and provide details as follows:

Chemical(s) concerned - indicate the chemical name. Do not forget to mention all chemicals used in a mix (provide a Health & Safety datasheet for the mixture if necessary).

Indicate the temperature, type of contact (splash, intermittent contact, etc.), mechanical resistance required, heat, cold, etc.

Other hazards: other chemical contacts (chemical produts, type of contact...).

Constraints related to work station: handling operations (dexterity, touch sensitivity required), glove length, anti-slip coating, contact with foodstuffs, etc…

What is the temperature range on the MAPA glove styles?

Below is a general thermal protection guideline for MAPA glove material:

Butyl: Max 300° F - Min -35° F
Fluoroelastomer: Max 480° F - Min -10° F
Nitrile: Max 280° F - Min 0° F
Neoprene: Max 280° F - Min -15° F
Natural Rubber: Max 212° F – Min. -45° F
Polyurethane: Max 240° F – Min. 32° F
PVA: Max 330° F – Min. 5° F
PVC: Max 175° F - Min 15° F
Max = Maximum temperature the glove will withstand and still provide some insulation for the hand.

Min = Minimum temperature at which the polymer will remain flexible and still provide some insulation for the hand.

The aforementioned temperature ratings are to be used as a general guideline as there are too many possible variables to predict, i.e. mass of the object being held, length of contact time, material conductance efficiency to name a few.